festinger and carlsmith experiment quizlet

/H [ 658 210 ] The people who were paid $1 rated the task as more enjoyable because they had no ample justification for lying, so they convinced themselves that the task was fun and rated it as fun. Psychol., 1954, 49, 211-218. Cite details from the essay that support your response. These results are the ones most directly relevant to the specific dissonance which we experimentally created It will be recalled that the tasks were purposely arranged to be rather boring and monotonous. The loan officer's belief is an example of_____. Three conditions were run, Control, One Dollar, and Twenty Dollars as follows: If the S hesitated, the E said things like, "It will only take a few minutes," "The regular person is pretty reliable; this is the first time he has missed," or "If we needed you we could phone you a day or two in advance; if you couldn't make it of course, we wouldn't expect you to come." Now Lilly says that classic rock is her favorite music, too. We would also like to acknowledge the help of Ruth Smith and Marilyn M. Miller. The prediction [from 3 and 4 above] is that the larger the reward given to the subject, the smaller will be the subsequent opinion change. ]B|07oS8x 7\>Hu0Y(ax/oFpr9&wcN/lLvxva 0]pr8g7o>:kIR,7V_ so4;OO8{B9D W}evewdJ|zCjmgO41b:f~fH4RZHn%j0d&@0yuV;Yhr.a3{Zolv8=e":1'>TwO_3[p]%zX{H[g*uW?:4?= One S (in the One Dollar condition), immediately after having talked to the girl, demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things, and also told the E he wanted to wait until she was finished so he could tell her about it. Kelman (1953), in the previously mentioned study, in attempting to explain the unexpected finding that the persons who complied in the moderate reward condition changed their opinion more than in the high reward condition, also proposed the same kind of explanation. Cram has partnered with the National Tutoring Association, Conformity In The Stanford Prison Experiment, Stereotypes: The Role Of Discrimination In Social Groups, Summary Of Stereotypes That Affect Social Interaction. 1 Among the paid participants, 5 had suspicions about getting paid for the designated task. 50 0 obj We felt it was important to show that the effect was not a completely general one but was specific to the content of the dissonance which was created. To do otherwise would have been to create conflict or dissonance (lack of harmony) between their attitudes and their behavior. "Cognitive consequences of forced compliance". Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for the findings. If you want somebody to like you, induce the person to perform "liking behavior" such as doing you a favor. endobj Since these derivations are stated in detail by Festinger (1957, Ch. The observed opinion change is greater than for persons who only hear the speech or for persons who read a prepared speech with emphasis solely on execution and manner of delivery The authors of these two studies explain their results mainly in terms of mental rehearsal and thinking up new arguments. Behaviorists would have predict that a reinforcement 20 times bigger would produce more change. 0000010779 00000 n _____ is the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. (1984, August) Psychology Today, pp.40-45. /Parent 45 0 R >> According to the social psychologist, the social comparison theory is the idea that there is a drive within individuals to search for outside images in order to evaluate their own opinions and abilities. The behavioral component of prejudice is______. An internet resource developed by /Type/Page Procedure In this experiment, 71 male participants were given a series of nonsensical and boring tasks. The formation of in-groups and out-groups, The effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is, Strategies for overcoming prejudice include. Please select the correct language below. But when Eddie is late the next day, he blames it on heavy traffic. The Social Comparison Theory was originally proposed by Leon Festinger in 1954. Lilly's attitude toward classic rock was most likely acquired through______. The private opinions of the subjects concerning the experience were then determined. Goleman, D. (1991, July 16) New way to battle bias: fight acts, not feelings. All experimental Ss in both One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions were asked, after this explanation, to return the money they had [p. 207] been given. trailer 2. The remaining subjects were asked to take the place of an experimenter, if they would want to. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Explorable.com (Nov 21, 2010). What happens when students are asked to defend positions contrary to their beliefs? In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments. Sandy was using_______ processing. The difference .between the One Dollar and Control conditions is not impressive at all (t = 1.21). To achieve consonance, something has to give. An unpleasant psychological state often aroused when people hold two conflicting cognition. In all the comparisons, the Control condition should be regarded as a baseline from which to evaluate the results in the other two conditions. In order to teach her second grade students about ______, teacher Jane Elliot created in-groups and out-groups based on the superficial characteristic of eye color. 0000000974 00000 n Thus, with self-selection of who did and who did not make the required overt statement and with varying percentages of subjects in the different conditions who did make the requsted statement, no interpretation of the data can be unequivocal. 2. After the S agreed to do it, the E gave him the previously mentioned sheet of paper headed "For Group B" and asked him to read it through again. In 1959, Festinger, along with James Carlsmith, tested this theory (Cognitive Dissonance). Her improved performance is an example of. Oct. 2011. The influence of role-playing on opinion change. dissonance, and as a result, they would rate the task as less More surprisingly, if you change a person's behavior, attitudes change to match the behavior. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. 90 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<20DCF6A9F66A934D9B18D4D3D2546E7A><7EBEFA77420BBC4EB7D76A22531484C2>]/Index[80 30]/Info 79 0 R/Length 66/Prev 129900/Root 81 0 R/Size 110/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream endobj Five Ss (three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment. The participants who convinced themselves that the task really was fun were the ones . Putting these 11 in exception, the 60 remaining responses are the following: One of the questions that Festinger and Carlsmith were aiming to answer is how enjoyable were the tasks for the participants. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Search over 500 articles on psychology, science, and experiments. The hour which the S spent working on the repetitive, monotonous tasks was intended to provide, for each S uniformly, an experience about which he would have a somewhat negative opinion. A theory of cognitive dissonance. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, "Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?" As can be readily seen in Table 1, there are only negligible differences among conditions. This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. Which of the following statements about stereotypes is FALSE? Actually, the result, as may be seen in the table, are in exactly the same direction, and the magnitude of the mean differences is fully as large as on the first question. Harry's friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University, of which 11 students were disqualified. And lastly, participants were asked whether they would want to participate again in the future in a study the same as this, using the scale -5 to +5. The average rating in this condition is only -.05, slightly and not significantly higher than the Control condition. If you want to keep people from hating each other, work on eliminating hateful behavior. In these circumstances, the object of sacrifice becomes "sacred" and it is in a position to demand further sacrifices. He hoped to exhibit cognitive dissonance in an experiment which was cleverly disguised as a performance experiment. The results strongly corroborate the theory that was tested. According to Sternberg, the emotional and psychical arousal a person feels for another is the_______ component of love. A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. in order to reduce dissonance. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) conducted one of the first studies examining cognitive dissonance. In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments. hXr8=fj*!US%mfy l8oIbR0Bn t7!g] %>))BI0` 98sUx GHM. Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. xref bringing diverse groups of people into contact with each other. Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith conducted a study on cognitive dissonance investigating on the cognitive consequences of forced compliance. A rating of the amount of time in the discussion that the S spent discussing the tasks as opposed to going off into irrelevant things. One side argued that football was good for a university, the other side argued that it was harmful. Typically the behavior is in the past, by the time the person feels dissonance, so the behavior cannot be changed. There remain, for analysis, 20 Ss in each of the thee conditions. %PDF-1.7 % The stove is too large to be moved out of his way, so he has to learn not to touch it -even when Martha isn't looking. He must be a genius." Which of the following is not one of the elements of effective persuasion? This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the Ss. If behavior is assumed to be caused by internal personality characteristics, this is known as___________. . This question was included because there was a chance that differences might emerge. correct. endobj Recently Festinger (1957) proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance. Cognitive Dissonance refers to the discomfort that is felt when a person has two beliefs that conflict with each other, or when they are engaging in . //document.getElementById('maincontent').style.display = 'none'; Half of the In Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) experiment in which they asked individuals to "lie" and tell . To reduce the feeling of discomfort about lying, they persuaded themselves they actually enjoyed the experiment. asking people to work on separate projects but in the same room. This project has received funding from the, You are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give, Select from one of the other courses available, https://explorable.com/cognitive-dissonance, Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The present experiment was listed as a two-hour experiment dealing with "Measures of Performance.". If no factors other than his private opinion are considered it would follow, at least in our culture, that if he believes "X" he would publicly state "X." [1] The experiment reported here was done as part of a program of research supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation to the senior author. "Fight acts, not feelings," is the banner of anti-racist social scientists. Participants who agreed to do this were paid either $1 or $20. Do a site-specific Google search using the box below. "Fight acts, not feelings," is the banner of anti-racist social scientists. According to Festinger and Carlsmith, the participants experienced dissonance between the conflicting cognitions of telling someone that a particular task is interesting when the truth is, they found it rather uninteresting and boring. The discussion between the S and the girl was recorded on a hidden tape recorder. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith (1959) conducted an experiment entitled "Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance". The 71 subjects were informed that the experiment focuses on the "Measures of Performance." This is an example of which rule of attraction? & KING, B.T. To which two processes do most social psychologists attribute the failure of Kitty Genovese's neighbors to help her? Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on "how enjoyable the tasks were" but weaker. 3. J. abnorm. A theory of cognitive dissonance. When Gene goes out of town, he expects, in return, that Roger will water his plants. task faced a greater degree of dissonance than the ones who were paid $20, so Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. >> At the beginning of the Festinger and Carlsmith experiment, student volunteers were asked to perform a simple and boring task. Copyright 2007-2018 Russ Dewey Gerard goes to his job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn t-shirt, and sandals. On the other hand, the people who were paid $20 had the monetary reason to lie. _________ has been linked to higher levels of aggression. hb```s cB@q^2cTaX-mhp\fQgfL7uM^FD0a!&MMtm#4 3;:$:AGCk!;R )b0Hq$q4sX za4],JJAb$de\"p .j,D VZS Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards. The second area is whether the experiment gave the participant an opportunity to discover their own skills, using the scale of 0 to 10. } 8LDR#sUFZTE_|@N. The question was included because, as far as we could see, it had nothing to do with the dissonance that was experimentally created and could not be used for dissonance reduction. Certainly, the more interesting and enjoyable they felt the tasks were, the greater would be their desire to participate in a similar experiment. KING, B.T. Sherry H. Priester 2. This has many practical implications. Rating scale 0 to 10. His data, however did not support this idea. Most of our subjects tell us afterward that they found it quite interesting You get a chance to see how you react to the tasks and so forth." Festinger and Carlsmith - cognitive dissonance , Cognitive consequences of Forced Compliance. 60 0 obj >> Festinger observed that the subjects were put in a psychologically uncomfortable position. Like in every other study, there are some responses that are deemed to be invalid. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about? Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Cognitive dissonance theory is the theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent (Myers 2007). This illustrates, If Julie holds the specific attitude that smoking is bad and will likely have an adverse effect on her health, possibly causing lung cancer or emphysema, Julie is, more likely to match her behavior to her attitude by not smoking, When trying to persuade an audience, the message should. Deception is the cornerstone of the experiment conceived by Leon Festinger in the year 1959. There is perhaps no surer way of infecting ourselves with virulent hatred toward a person than by doing him a grave injustice. Leon Festinger and his colleague James Carlsmith performed an experiment regarding cognitive dissonance in 1959. Subjects in both groups typically agreed to tell the next subject that the experiment was interesting. endobj Discourage questions and alternate solutions. This is further explained in Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith's study in 1954. Prev page|Page top|Chapter Contents|Next page. Seventy-one male students in the introductory psychology course at Stanford University were used in the experiment. If you want to keep people from hating each other, work on eliminating hateful behavior. 112 A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all groups members get the same grade. In this study, research participants were asked to spend an hour completing boring tasks (for example, repeatedly loading spools onto a tray). This person has two cognitions which, psychologically, do not fit together: one of these is the knowledge that he believes "X," the other the knowledge that he has publicly stated that he believes "not X." To start with, she asks her boyfriend to cook dinner for her. The girl, after this listened quietly, accepting and agreeing to everything the S told her. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. test scores of each group decreased when it was the out-group. Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance has been one . Doing so, they started to identify with the arguments and accept them as their own. In Asch's black line experiment, participants. What is the Sacrifice Trap? 4), we will here give only a brief outline of the reasoning. In each group, the confederates wore identical glasses, with the participant/subject wearing a different set of glasses. Eddie has made the _________. $K{.-hC ;{l8S ] Which of the following statements is TRUE? When the interview was over, the interviewer brought the S back to the experimental room where the E was waiting together with the girl who had posed as the waiting S. (In the control condition, of course, the girl was not there.) If you make people treat you with respect, they will respect you more, in order to reduce dissonance between their attitudes and their behaviors. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) experiment in which they asked individuals to "lie" and tell the next participant how exciting the experiment turning knobs was, which group reported on a follow-up questionnaire the most satisfaction in their knob-turning experience?, The "A" in the "ABCs" of attitudes is, refer to beliefs and . Based on experiments by Festinger and Carlsmith, the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors. Festinger and Carlsmith hypothesized that when people lie and don't have a good reason to lie (such as being paid only one measly dollar), they will be motivated to believe the lie. Subjects rated this using a scale of negative 5 to positive 5 (-5 to +5). Sandy loves to play pool and has become quite good at the game. These Ss were hired for one dollar to tell a waiting S that tasks, which were really rather dull and boring, were interesting, enjoyab1e, and lots of fun. Those who were paid $1 rated the activity a positive 1.35 (+1.35), while those who were paid $20 gave it a rating of negative 0.5 (-0.5). On the other hand, the ones who were paid $20, apparently had the money as their primary justification for carrying out their task. But nevertheless, the possibility exists that the Ss n the One Dollar condition may have improvised more. Sets of assumptions that people have about how different types of people, personality traits, ion. hbbd``b` H? So, to avoid dissonance, the person likes you. The subjects were divided into two groups, A and B, where Group A was provided no introduction regarding the tasks they will be performing and Group B was. John was late to class, and his friend Eddie assumes that John simply doesn't care about being on time.

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